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The Health Benefits of Shilajit

The Health Benefits of Shilajit

For thousands of years, Shilajit has been used as a rejuvenator and an adaptogen.

It is a substance that has been on the earth for longer than humanity. It is an original, primordial energy source, and the health benefits it offers are vast.

Shilajit has been attributed with many miraculous healing properties, and many therapeutic properties have been ascribed to it. A number of these have now been verified by modern scientific evaluation as true and are now supported by the scientific evidence.

Modern science is however only beginning to recognise what the ancient sciences have known for millennia; that ultra-high quality Shilajit is a genuine panacea with the capability to rejuvenate and revitalise us and enhance our overall experience of being alive.

We now know for example that Shilajit has antiviral capability and functions as an immunomodulator, regulating and optimising our immune system according to what is required of it as we live each moment.

The first thing that is destroyed in the laboratory when a nutrient is isolated from a food, is the delicate web of intelligence that binds the components of food together.— Deepak Chopra

We have dedicated ourselves to understanding this remarkable substance and bringing it to market in a form that actually enhances the exquisite web of intelligence and synergistic power of this miracle of nature.

Shilajit Increases your Energy and Vitality

Many people who start using Shilajit on a daily basis report a remarkable increase in their energy and vitality. This will come as no surprise to Ayurvedic physicians as they have been prescribing Shilajit to boost energy for millennia.

Although there are a number of explanations of why this is, it is clear that Shilajit brings new levels of energy and vitality in a number of ways.

From an Ayurvedic perspective, Shilajit boosts your body’s fundamental energy source, known as Ojas. Ojas is a certain type of energy, or vibrancy. When you are feeling at your most energised, your Ojas is high. It is at its most plentiful in our teenage years and reduces as we get older. Regular use of Pure Shilajit helps to reverse this trend.

Shilajit is also remarkable in that a number of its components are the fuel that’s required to help the body manufacture creatine. Creatine is vital to recharge your energy system, making more energy available when you need it. Creatine also has the potential to inhibit tumor growth, strengthen your muscles, reduce excess blood glucose and provide a host of other health benefits. These include reducing cholesterol and triglyceride levels, increasing stamina and enhancing metabolic functioning, especially when metabolic functioning is poor as can be in the case of brain and heart system disorders.

Shilajit also increases the breathing capacity of the mitochondria in the body, the actual power source of your cells. It does this by activating mitochondrial respiration, converting oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical that fuels your body’s cells. When taking Shilajit regularly your oxygenation of your own cells will be maximised.

Shilajit has also successfully treated Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. It has been suggested that it does this by modulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and by the preservation of mitochondrial function and integrity.

Overall, it is clear that if you want to have increased levels of energy and vitality, a regular daily dose of Pure Shilajit is an obvious choice.

Research on Shilajit and Energy

Surapaneni DK(1), Adapa SR, Preeti K, Teja GR, Veeraragavan M, Krishnamurthy S. Shilajit attenuates behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and mitochondrial bioenergetics in rats.J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Aug 30;143(1):91-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.06.002. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Effect of humic substances on mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation.

Shilajit Promotes Brain and Nervous System Health

It is normal to expect that as we age there will be various processes that will go into decline. We expect that our cognition may deteriorate, and that we will lose our mental acuity and memory. In the case of diseases such as Alzheimer’s and dementia, now acknowledged as a major cause of death, we know that the decline can be more rapid, to a point that even our personality and sense of self will disintegrate.

The role that Shilajit takes in this is as a rejuvenator of intellect, or Medhya Rasayan as it is known in Ayurvedic medicine. Scientific research has supported what has been known about Shilajit for centuries and has even confirmed that Shilajit may be able to assist in treating previously incurable Alzheimer’s disease. Components of Shilajit, and particularly the dibenzo-alpha-pyrones (DBPs) and the elements within, assist with maintaining high levels of cognition and protecting the body’s neurological system. Studies have shown that Shilajit has a distinct and marked neuroprotective activity.

With proven ability to improve brain function improvement and reduce stress, Shilajit assists the body in regulating levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, crucial to decision making and mental performance, particularly in challenging situations. It has a pronounced nootropic, or intelligence enhancing effect on the brain, and it improves overall cognition, memory, learning rates and capabilities.

If you are seeking to enhance your mental performance for work or study, or need assistance when the pressure is on, you can get stress relief and optimized cognitive function when taking Pure Shilajit resin. Furthermore, these effects may be even more noticeable when Shilajit is taken with herbal formulas designed to target brain health and performance due to Shilajit’s ability to make other supplements more bioavailable.

In addition, initial studies have shown that Shilajit may play a major role in the future of treating major neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, and dementias such as Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

A Lancet report recently calculated that more than a third of dementia cases could be preventable, many through lifestyle changes.

‘As the Alzheimer’s Association puts it in a bleak reality check, “….the currently approved Alzheimer’s medications are ineffective in stopping or slowing the course of the disease.” (Dr. Dale Bredesen, ‘The End of Alzheimer’s, 2017.)

Shilajit was found to be an effective inhibitor of Tau-protein aggregation, a main cause of Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. In addition with this benefit, initial studies have shown that Shilajit improved memory and cognition in cognitive disorder patients. It’s ability to reverse neurodegeneration shows great promise.

Research on Shilajit and Brain & Nervous System

Aiello, A., Fattorusso, E., Menna, M., Vitalone, R., Schröder, H. C., & Müller, W. E. (2010). Mumijo traditional medicine: fossil deposits from antarctica (chemical composition and beneficial bioactivity). Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2011, 738131.

Hua Yim, Eun Ju Yang, Soo Joung Park, and Seong Kyu Han. Glycine- and GABA-mimetic
Actions of Shilajit on the Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis in Mice. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. Vol 15; 285-289, October, 2011.

Bhattacharya S.K., Sen A.P. effect of Shilajit on rat brain monoamines. Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 6 163-164

Jaiswal, A.K. and S. K. Bhattacharya. 1992 Effects of Shilajit on memory, anxiety and brain
monoamines in rat. Indian J. Pharmacol, 24 (1), 12-17 3.

Schliebs R., Liebmann A., Bhattacharya S.K., Kuram A., Ghosal S. and Bigl V (1997) Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera and Shilajit differentially affect cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAergic markers in rat Brain. Neurochem Int 30 (2), 181-252.

Shilajit Supports the Immune System

Shilajit’s remarkable properties include the ability to support the immune system. Shilajit is a proven immunomodulator, meaning that it can modulate the immune system and influence its equilibrium. In practice what this means is that if the immune system is underactive, shilajit can stimulate it so that its activity increases, and if the immune system is overactive, then shilajit can reduce this activity.

Shilajit also stimulates microphages, a specialised cell that seeks out engulfs and destroys harmful bacteria, to release cytokines which gather more microphages to the area to help with healing. Furthermore, shilajit facilitates interconnected networks of microphages to form, which then work together on healing the body.

Shilajit acts directly on the immune system to heal inflammatory diseases and disorders, and it promotes recovery from wounds and tissue damage. By assisting and supporting the immune system, Shilajit helps the body to combat harmful organisms, preventing illness from occurring in the first place.

Shilajit and Cancer

Studies have shown that Shilajit can be toxic to various of types of cancers. These include lung, breast, colon, ovarian and liver cancer. Some researchers attribute its toxicity to these cancers by the presence and combination of particular metals in Shilajit, making it a potential natural cancer treatment.

Shilajit has also been proven to protect the body from radiation damage caused by the adverse effects of chemotherapy treatment of cancer. A recent study published in the Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics found that it protected ovaries from chemo-radiotherapy related damage.

The evidence from further studies suggests that the regular consumption of Shilajit may lower the risk of cancer and inhibit the growth of cancer tumors.

Mineral pitch induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation via modulating reactive oxygen species in hepatic cancer cells:

Shilajit and HIV/AIDS

Studies have shown significant improvement in patients who were given shilajit as an adjunct to other treatments that they were receiving for AIDS. Conventional Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) was compared to a combination of Shilajit and ART. The group that took Shilajit and ART responded better to ART both clinically and biochemically. Shilajit decreased the recurrent resistance of the HIV virus to ART and improved the overall outcome of the  therapy.

Shilajit Supports the Cardiovascular System

Traditional medical texts indicate Shilajit’s ability to treat conditions of the heart and circulatory system (the blood and blood vessels) and this has been proven in practice. Shilajit enhances the body’s ability to carry more oxygen into the bloodstream by enhancing the uptake of iron into red blood cells. It can also help when the body has an excess of iron. Shilajit has been used successfully when treating blood-clotting disorders and inflamed or dilated veins.

Shilajit is used for a number of heart diseases including atherosclerosis, a condition where plaque comprised of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances accumulate on the inner walls of blood vessels. Over time, the plaque hardens and narrows your arteries, limiting the flow of oxygen-rich blood to organs and other parts of the body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack, stroke, and sometimes even death.

It is now believed that free radicals are a contributing factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Shilajit’s effectiveness in treating and preventing the condition has been attributed to its ability to neutralize free radicals.

Shilajit Can Help to Regenerate Bone

High-grade Pure Shilajit resin may be used to support people who have suffered bone fractures and surgeries.

Studies have shown that Shilajit lowered pain in the area of the fracture, quickly decreased swelling, dispersed hematomas, and enable the weight-bearing capacity of their extremities to be regained faster than expected, reducing their time of incapacity.

Shilajit Can Help With Weight Loss

Shilajit can help you to lose weight. After three months of taking Shilajit, significant weight loss was observed in obese people who took Shilajit when compared to those that didn’t take Shilajit.

Shilajit Supports Digestive Health and is Anti-Ulcerogenic

Shilajit is remarkable in that it possesses both anti-ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory ability. If you already have good digestive health, regular consumption of Shilajit can help strengthen you against any future difficulties as it will strengthen and tonify your digestive system.

There are a wealth of studies supporting Shilajit’s role as an aid to having full digestive health.

Shilajit has been shown to bring about an overall improvement when someone is suffering from stomach ulcers. It decreases stress in the digestive system, improves the stomach lining’s protective coating, normalises stomach secretions, promotes the healing of existing ulcers and reduces the tendency for any future ulcer formation, in the stomach and also in other digestive organs.

Shilajit Can Help with Stress, Anxiety and Depression

A remarkable effect of shilajit is that it has the ability to relieve anxiety, due to its anti- anxiety, or anxiolytic effects. These results have even been shown to be on a par with prescription drugs, and unlike certain prescribed drugs, Shilajit has the benefit that is isn’t habit forming.

Acknowledged as an adaptogen, Shilajit helps you to adapt to your environment and cope with everyday stress. It does this by keeping the body’s processes in harmony and facilitating homeostasis by correcting chemical imbalances that are the result of stress.

Shilajit Supports Healing after Brain Injury

Research has indicated that Shilajit may be helpful in recovery after a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). In a controlled study those that were administered Shilajit showed reduced brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, intracranial pressure (ICP) and neurologic outcomes following brain trauma when compared to control groups. This research suggests that Shilajit provides a neuroprotective effect after brain injury.

Shilajit Enhances Athletic Performance

Shilajit is a natural anabolic and a remarkable enhancer of athletic performance. Shilajit activates anabolic processes in cells, tissues and organs and it emulates the action of anabolic steroids in tissue development and functioning. Shilajit also accelerates protein and nucleic acid synthesis, stimulates energy-producing reactions in the liver and promotes transport of minerals into muscle and bone tissues.

Used by the elite Russian military and sports establishment since the 1970’s, the Siberian version of Shilajit, Moomiyo, is well renowned and documented for increasing strength and muscle mass and also for its recuperative powers.

Shilajit extends endurance and enhances muscle growth by promoting the activity of hormone glands.

Major studies have shown endurance to increase by up to 29% when taking Shilajit, and recovery time has also been demonstrated to reduce significantly.

Shilajit’s powers have also been used by the Russian space program and it has been administered to Cosmonauts to strengthen and modulate their immune systems, improve their adaptive health and enhance recovery both during and after extended periods in space.

The potent anabolic properties of Shilajit emulate the action of anabolic steroids and enhance muscle growth and physical performance. These qualities make it of great interest to athletes, bodybuilders and anyone who takes part in demanding physical activity. Pure Shilajit resin, taken either on its own or in combination with a prescribed herbal formulation will enhance performance and the long-term benefits of physical exercise.

Shilajit Is Antifungal and Antimicrobial

Shilajit has clear antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. Antibacterial properties have been observed toward different strains of common bacteria, including Staphylococci, Streptococci, Coliform bacteria, Enterococci and Proteus. Antifungal activity has been observed against Penicillium chrysogenum.

Is a person is suffering with various microbial infections then Shilajit may help. It has also been found to be effective as a prophylactic measure against bacterial infections. 

Shilajit’s effectiveness in treating infections was among its earliest observed qualities. It contains substances which appear to have an antibiotic effect, and according to some observers this effect exceeds that of penicillin. Shilajit has been found valuable in resolving dysentery and similar digestive-tract infections; infections of the ears, the mouth and gums, the liver and the heart, infected wounds, fungal infections and others.

Shilajit Heals Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Women

Over 1 million women annually in the USA are affected by Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), and it has been shown that Shilajit can reduce the symptoms of this condition.

A PID is an infection of the organs of a women’s reproductive system, which can include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and cervix. It is often caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI), like chlamydia or gonorrhoea. A Pelvic Inflammatory Disease can also occur after childbirth, abortion or miscarriage. When taken with honey after food over a period of 60 days, Shilajit significantly reduced PID symptoms including vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain and menstrual abnormalities. Your health professional would usually treat a PID with antibiotics, but it is good to know that Shilajit can help support any recommendations that you are offered.

Shilajit Is an Anti-Inflammatory

Inflammation is often thought of as something that can be seen externally, such as swelling or bruising, most often as the result of an injury. But inflammation is a natural process that occurs inside of us, and when it becomes uncontrolled it can contribute to almost every chronic disease, including cancer, heart disease, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes and depression. Inflammation is a natural process, but when it goes on for too long it can trigger disease processes, which is why science attempts to understand it and find ways to eliminate it. When uncontrolled, inflammation reduces quality of life and leads to tissue damage. It is a major factor in premature ageing and the breakdown of health and bodily degeneration.

Shilajit has a growing body of research showing its power as an anti-inflammatory. It has been found to have significant anti-inflammatory effects when tested in laboratory conditions.

In a study of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), subjects taking Shilajit with no other medical treatment were observed to have a reduction in inflammation of 33% between 3-6 days after treatment commenced. By 8-10 days all subjects experienced a complete disappearance of  all symptoms of inflammation, pain and swelling.

A further study put Shilajit into solution and locally massaged subjects who were suffering from diseases of the peripheral nerve fibres (rediculitis, neuritis, plexitis, and neuralgia). With just 3-5 minutes of massage per day, directly onto the affected parts, lowered the tension in the inflamed muscles, and all pain and itching disappeared.. Within 3-5 days all symptoms of the disease were gone and the treatment was concluded with a 100% recovery rate.

Shilajit has been greatly helpful in the treatment for periodontal diseases of the mouth and has considerable anti-inflammatory effect on osteoarthrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and cervical spondylosis.

Shilajit Enhances Cognitive Function

Shilajit is an extremely safe food supplement and has the potential to cure or prevent a multitude of diseases. Shilajit enhances cognition, memory and brain function, and can rejuvenate the intellect. Current studies are showing that its cognition enhancing benefits are exceptional, with potential applications such as the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

In Ayurveda a medicine such as this is known as a Medya Rasayan, meaning it is also an enhancer of learning and memory retrieval. In modern terms, a Medhya Rasayan is a “Nootropic”, describing a group of drugs that enhance cognition, without any side-effect or toxicity.

Shilajit acts at molecular and cellular levels and is known to have a multitude of health benefits, specifically to improve memory and intellect by Prabhava (specific action). If Shilajit is taken regularly it will boost nourishment, health, memory, intellect, immunity and longevity.

Shilajit Enhances High-Altitude Performance

Shilajit is collected at some of the highest altitudes in the world, and we know that plants and substances that exist at high altitude can help people who are existing at these heights to tolerate the much harsher conditions. In the Andes for example, local people have known for centuries that chewing Coca leaves enhances their physical performance.

Shilajit is remarkable in this respect, it significantly reduces high-altitude sickness and associated problems including hypoxia, weakness, GI disorders such as vomiting, pain, pulmonary edema, dementia and cerebral edema, and these findings are evidenced by numerous research studies. This makes Shilajit the ideal supplement for skiers, snowboarders, climbers, mountaineers and anyone who has a passion for high-altitude sports and recreation.

Shilajit Helps Combat Addiction, Alcohol and Drug Dependency

Shilajit is a powerful anti-craving agent and possesses significant anti-anxiety and calming properties.

Research has demonstrated that Shilajit has anti-dependency qualities and helps prevent the development of morphine tolerance, reducing the likelihood of morphine addiction.

Shilajit may also help alcoholics and those who are withdrawing from alcohol to experience less anxiety and stress, due to its calming and anti-anxiety qualities.

Shilajit Is an Exceptional Source of Minerals and Trace Elements

As a global population we are finding it significantly harder to obtain mineral complexes in our food. These highly synergistic, naturally occurring combinations of essential minerals and trace elements are necessary for a long and healthy life, and as a result of modern intensive farming methods and the ongoing depletion of our soils they are becoming increasingly harder to obtain from food. We are left with a diet lacking in the invisible nutrients that we need, and so to compensate we are having to turn to supplementation in our attempts to make up for such a compromised daily diet. Knowing the best supplement to take is however extremely complex; we need minerals that are easily assimilated, and many are not despite the promises. The best choices are complexes that occur naturally, but amongst all these Shilajit is in a class of its own. By choosing to take Shilajit, you get all the minerals and trace elements that you need, delivered within an intelligent web of synergy that has been harmonised by nature over millennia.

Shilajit offers an outstanding profile of broad-spectrum mineral ions. These mineral complexes provide various benefits for your health and are present in very beneficial, easily assimilated forms. The following are some examples:

Calcium (Ca) is present in a fulvate form, making it more readily useable in the human body than other forms. As a fulvate it has extremely small molecular structures which means easy uptake and utilization by your body.

Copper (Cu) in Shilajit acts as SOD (super oxide dismutase) and an easy form for cellular uptake.

Iron (Fe) is present in Shilajit in ferrous form, so it is in ideal form for absorption by red blood cells and for the synthesis of haemoglobin.

Other minerals present, again as an ideal synergistic complex and in correct form for assimilation are Magnesium (Mg) which will support bone density and flexibility, Molybdenum (Mo) which supports many important enzymes and helps maintain cognition inthe brain, Vanadium (V) which supports antioxidant enzymes which support anti-ageing, and Zinc (Zn) which helps reduce toxicity from other heavy metals that are present in your diet.

Shilajit treats Diabetes and Regulates Blood Sugar Levels.

Scientific studies have confirmed what traditional medicine has always known, that Shilajit can prevent and treat diabetes, both type II and adult onset diabetes.

Regular usage of Shilajit can help to regulate and maintain healthy blood sugar levels, and also alleviate chemically induced diabetes or hyperglycaemia. Shilajit can also reduce blood glucose and improve lipid profile, reducing your risk of developing diabetes. High blood sugar levels are associated with premature aging and exhaustion and Shilajit helps to reduce this susceptibility.

In experimental studies, Shilajit was shown to significantly reduce blood glucose levels and optimize glucose homeostasis to near-normal states. Shilajit’s antioxidant properties also scavenge free radicals, protect the beta-islet cells from further damage and normalize circulatory insulin levels.

Shilajit Can Reduce Pain Levels

Shilajit has long been used to ease pain, and laboratory tests have confirmed its place as an analgesic (pain reliever).

Subjects have repeatedly reported pain levels to be reduced when pain is present due to bone fracture, burns, stomach ulcers, when inflammation or swelling is present, and also as a result of treating conditions such as abscesses, radiculitis, mastitis and osteochondrosis.

Shilajit Supports Fertility and a Healthy Hormonal Balance

Shilajit is known in Ayurveda to increase your overall energy and sense of well-being.

Throughout its history shilajit has been known to increase sexual libido and improve fertility.This energetic essence, which Ayurveda refers to as Ojas is the foundation of your sexual vitality and can be rebuilt through proper sustenance and attitude, and Shilajit is the ideal medicine for this. It is renowned throughout India and the Himalayas for supporting a healthy reproductive system in all sexes.

Shilajit contains many substances that have been shown to optimise the reproductive system, such as amino acids, proteins and dibenzo-alpha-pyrones (DBPs). Shilajit also contains L-Carnitine, which is known to improve the mobility of sperm cells and their ability to mature. Poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), also contained in shilajit, are also associated with the sperm’s ability to penetrate the egg all during the fertilization process.

In study of men who had not conceived a child and who took 0.2gm of Shilajit per day over a 90-day period, results showed that overall sperm count in the men increased by 61.4%, testosterone increased by 23.5% and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) increased by 9.4%.

Shilajit Increases Longevity

Ayurveda refers to Shilajit for extending human lifespan.

The Caraka Samhita states that use of Shilajit enables the user to witness a hundred summers on earth, free from disease and decay. Each tulä weight (7.75 lbs. or 3.5 kilos) of shilajit taken successively, adds a century to the duration of the human life, while ten tulä weight (77.5 lbs. or 35 kilos) measures extend it to a thousand years (Sharma 2000). Additional quantities are said to extend lifetime in increments of a century up to one thousand years. (Bhishagratna 1998).

While there is no proof of such lifespans being achievable, when understood within the context in which these words were recorded, Himalayan Shilajit, and only that of the finest quality, is traditionally clearly indicated for increasing longevity.

Shilajit is a Panacea

The Caraka Samhita discusses shilajit in a chapter on rejuvenation therapy (rasayana). It has been proposed that the modern equivalent of a rasayana is an adaptogenic substance. (Ghosal 1998).

The Caraka Samhita states that there is no curable disease in the universe, which is not effectively cured by shilajit when it is administered at the appropriate time, in combination with suitable drugs and by adopting the prescribed method. When administered to a healthy person, with similar conditions it produces immense energy. In the Sushruta Samhita, it is noted that there is no bodily distemper, which does not yield to shilajit’s highly curative virtues. When gradually taken, (in adequate doses) it tends to improve the strength and complexion of the body. (Bhishagratna 1998). This echoed in the Astanga Hrdayam which also states that it is the best rejuvenator (Murthy 2001).

Shilajit is a Yogahavi, or Health Catalyst

Shilajit can assist with the assimilation of other foods, herbs, supplements and drugs. When you take another substance with Shilajit, it can become more bioavailable.

In Ayurveda, this is called Yogahavi. It refers to the power of a substance to catalyze and maximize the action of other foods, supplements, herbs and medicines.

Ayurvedic and Tibetan medicine harnessed this power centuries ago, and many of the mineral, herb and plant medicines of Ayurveda are prescribed in combination with Shilajit to maximize their healing potential.

Shilajit’s action as a catalyst means it aids the body to fully absorb and utilize food, and it also increases the efficiency and effectiveness of superfoods.

When your body can absorb and utilize foods better, you get a higher nutritional value from a lower quantity of food.

The Yogahavi power of Shilajit allows a reduction of calorific intake while at the same time improving overall nutrition. This effect also applies when taking adaptogenic and nutraceutical foods.

Shilajit Research Papers

Acharya SB, Frotan MH, Goel RK, Tripathi SK, Das PK. Pharmacological actions of Shilajit. Indian J Exp Biol. 1988 Oct; 26(10): 775-7.

Agarwal, S.P., Khanna, R., Karmarkar, R., Anwer, M.K., Khar, R.K., 2007. Shilajit: a review. Phytotherapy Research 21, 401–405.

Agarwal, S.P., Anwer, M.K., Aqil, M., 2008a. Complexation of furosemide with fulvic acid extracted from Shilajit: a novel approach. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 34, 506–511.

Agarwal, S.P., Khanna, R., Karmarkar, R., Anwer, M.K., Khar, R.K., 2008b.
Physico-chemical, spectral and thermal characterization of Shilajit, a humic substance with medicinal properties. Asian Journal of Chemistry 20, 209–217.

Bhishagratna KK. Susruta Samhita Vol 2, Chapter XIII. Varanasi, India: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varansi-1, 1998.

Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2000 Aug; 72(2 Suppl): 624S-36S. Review.

Chen, Y., Senesi, N., Schnitzer, M., 1977. Information provided on humic substances by E4/E6 ratios. Soil Science Society of America Journal 41,352–358.

Chopra, R.A., Chopra, I.C., Handa, K.L., 1958. Indigenous Drugs of India. U.N. Dhar and Sons, Calcutta. pp. 457–461.

Christl, I., Knicker, H., Kogel-Knabner, I., Kretzschmar, R., 2000. Chemical heterogeneity of humic substances: characterization of size fractions obtained by hollow-fibre ultrafiltration. European Journal of Soil Science 51, 617–625.

Dittmar, T., Koch, B.P., Hertkorn, N., Kattner, G., 2008. A simple and efficient method for the solid-phase extraction of dissolved organic matter (SPE-DOM) from seawater. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 6, 230–235.

Einsiedl, F., Hertkorn, N., Wolf, M., Frommberger, M., Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Koch, B.P., 2007. Rapid biotic molecular transformation of fulvic acids in a karst aquifer. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 5474–5482.

Frotan, M.H., and Acharya, S.B. Pharmacological studies of shilajit. Indian Journal of Pharmacolgy 1984 16,45.

Ghosal, S., 1989. Shilajit.6. The facets and facts of Shilajit. In: Vohara, S.B., Dandiya, P.C. (Eds.), Research and Development of Indigenous Drugs. Institute of History of Medicine and Medical Research, New Delhi, pp.72–80.

Ghosal S, Lal J, Singh SK, Goel RK, Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK. The need for formulation of Shilajit by its isolated active constituents. Phytotherapy Res 1991; 5: 211-6.

Ghosal, S., 1990. Chemistry of Shilajit, an immunomodulatory rasayan. Pure and Applied Chemistry 62, 1285–1288.

Ghosal, S., 1992. Shilalit: its origin and significance. Indian Journal of
Indigenous Medicine 9, 1–4.

Ghosal S, Reddy JP, Lal VK. Shilajit I: chemical constituents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1976 May; 65(5): 772-3.

Ghosal S, Singh SK, Kumar Y, Srivatsava R. Antiulcerogenic activity of fulvic acids and 4-metoxy-6-carbomethyl biphenyl isolated from shilajit. Phytother Res. 1988;2:187-91.

Ghosal, S., 1993. Shilajit: Its origin and vital significance. In: Mukherjee, B. (Ed.), Traditional Medicine. Oxford – IBH, New Delhi, pp. 308–319.

Ghosal, S., Reddy, J.P., Lal, V.K., 1976. Shilajit I: chemical constituents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 65, 772–773.

Gondar, D., Lopez, R., Fiol, S., Antelo, J.M., Arce, F., 2005. Characterization and acid–base properties of fulvic and humic acids. Geoderma 126, 367–374.

Hockaday, W.C., Grannas, A.M., Hatcher, P.G., 2005. Interactions between black carbon and natural organic matter: influence on the sorptive uptake of pyrene by forest soil. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 229, U886.

Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK. Effects of Shilajit on memory, anxiety and brain monoamines in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1992; 24:12 – 17.

Kim, S., Kramer, R.W., Hatcher, P.G., 2003. Graphical method for analysis of ultrahigh-resolution broadband mass spectra of natural organic matter, the van Krevelen diagram. Analytical Chemistry 75, 5336–5344.

Koch, B.P., Dittmar, T., 2006. From mass to structure: an aromaticity index for high-resolution mass data of natural organic matter. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 20, 926–932.

Koch, B.P., Witt, M., Engbrodt, R., Dittmar, T., Kattner, G., 2005. Molecular formulae of marine and terrigenous dissolved organic matter detected by electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69, 3299–3308.

Koch, B.P., Witt, M., Kattner, G., Dittmar, T., 2007. Fundamentals of molecular formula assignment to ultrahigh resolution mass data of natural organic matter. Analytical Chemistry 79, 1758–1763.

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